Perfume Review: Ramon Monegal Pure Mariposa for Neiman Marcus

Spring is in the air, though clearly some parts of the world don’t seem to be so fortunate. Nonetheless, it seemed to be a good time to try out a few light, fresh fragrances that epitomize the upcoming season. One, in particular, caught my attention: Pure Mariposa, the new perfume created by the Spanish niche perfume house of Ramon Monegal for the American luxury department store, Neiman Marcus. Pure Mariposa is a bespoke perfume exclusive to the store and was released in February 2013.

One Neiman Marcus store with a floating butterfly decor. Source: Flickr.

One Neiman Marcus store with a floating butterfly decor. Source: Flickr.

Neiman Marcus' butterflies.

Neiman Marcus’ butterflies.

“Mariposa” means butterfly in Spanish and is not only a reference to Neiman Marcus’ happy, bright symbol of butterflies but the perfume’s point of inspiration.

In the press release for the perfume, Ramon Monegal said: The butterfly is an extraordinary creature that embodies many of the values that motivate me when I look for inspiration to fashion an olfactory tale in the form of a perfume.”  That “olfactory tale” seems to be one of flowery nectar in an airy, ozonic green forest:

Pure Mariposa will offer a floral-nectar accord with a festive tone in a dew-covered green forest, surrounded by a breeze of ozonic air, on a rich bottom accord of amber and musk.

Ramon Monegal Pure Mariposa

Neiman Marcus describes this as a “fruity, green-floral, woody scent” and lists the notes with great descriptive flair. Since it is their perfume, let’s go with their version, but note how Ramon Monegal or Neiman Marcus is trying to cover every possible base or category of perfumery imaginable:

Top Note

  • Fresh festive colorful: orange, grapefruit, bergamot.
  • Fruity vital, cheerful: yuzu, black currant, plum.
  • Ozonic pure, graceful: helional, melonal, calone, ultrazur. (molecules)

Middle Note

  • Green natural: oakmoss, grass accord, fig.
  • Floral rich, elegant: Osmanthus, jasmine, lily of the valley, rose wardia, tuberose.

Base Note

  • Woody powerful, harmonious: sandalwood, cashmeran (m), iris, anchouli (m). 
  • Silky sophisticated, majestic: peach, tonka bean, amber.

I assume the “(m)” abbreviation stands for “molecules” but the reference to “anchouli” made me blink, so I turned to Fragrantica. To my relief, it doesn’t seem to stand for some sort of anchovy oil. Instead, “anchouli” seems to be either a typo (like another on Neiman Marcus’ page) or a reference to some sort of synthetic “patchouli.”

I’m not a fan of synthetics — and particularly not of calone — so the listing of six different aromachemicals gave me great pause. I approached Pure Mariposa with some trepidation and first just gave the small decant a sniff. It was absolutely gorgeous in the bottle! Let me repeat that again: gorgeous! A beautiful scent with fresh, sweet, fruited and bright green notes. I could detect grapefruit that was yellow and sweet, not red and tart, along with fresh yuzu, juicy, sun-ripened yellow citrus, sweet (non-artificial) melon, sweetly green lily-of-the-valley, and fig. There was also that cheerful, happy note of freshly cut grass that is so evocative of the summer and sunshine. I was thrilled, and quite relieved.

Then, I put it on my skin. And it was a very different story…. A huge waft of synthetics and chemicals immediately hit my nose, followed quickly by incredibly dry, pungent, bitter oakmoss and equally bitter grass. There were also a panoply of sour notes from the citrus elements which contrasted strongly with the sweetness of the melonal aromachemical. The pungently dry aspects of mineralized oakmoss were side by side with sweet melon and sour citrus —  all on a base of synthetics and artificially peppered woods. Soapy lily-of-the-valley lurked in the corners, adding a different sort of green and white impression to the whole ghastly mélange.

I don’t know if my skin magnifies synthetic aromachemicals or if there is simply too damn many of them in Pure Mariposa, but the contrast between the beautiful brightness of the perfume in the bottle and its manifestation on my skin was a huge disappointment. That robust underpinning of aromachemicals remained long after the perfume’s opening changed to something much less bitter and dry, and much more melon-y sweet, metallic and airily green.

Ten minutes in, the perfume became simultaneously even more bitter but, also, more sweet. The very dusty, dry, grey mineralized feel of the oakmoss competed with the green lily-of-the-valley’s sweetness, the freshness of yellow citrus and the feel of a green honeydew melon mounted on aquatic underpinnings of calone. The calone is just brutally strong in this perfume and truly dominates everything at its heart, while the melonal runs over the top of everything like a bulldozer. Yet, at the same time, there are synthetically peppered woods with a definite metallic, somewhat alcohol-like undertone.

Two hours in, I’m surrounded by a cloud of calone and melonal: aquatic melon freshness is everywhere. Within the cloud projecting several feet from my arm, the bitterness of very dry oakmoss remains but it’s underneath and on the skin, not wafting around. Some vaguely amorphous, abstract floral notes dance around, joined by occasional, fleeting flickers of powder and soap. At the same time, there is that annoying metallic, alcohol note that pops up every now and then, like a ghost flitting about under the endless mushroom cloud of fresh melon. The metallic note is not continuously present, but it never completely leaves, either. My mind is utterly confused by the endless contrast of bitter and sweet, dry and fresh, sour and aquatic, flowers and alcohol.

And the perfume remained that way for hours and hours without any fundamental change. The sillage dropped after about four hours but, like many perfumes with aromachemicals, it has persistent longevity. On my perfume-consuming skin, it lasted about 9 hours until I simply couldn’t take it any more and desperately sought a change. Yes, I washed it off. There is only so much melon and metallic alcohol a person can take, after all!

On Fragrantica, there is only one review thus far for Pure Mariposa and it’s not an endorsement:

fresh but weird scent… a cloying nutty smoky (think ur fireplace and throw orange peels in and let them dry out…took days to take off my skin…good last power..but the scent is kinda like beautiful(C KLEIN)..but with burnt notes…im not fond of.

I’m sad to say that I think their experience was still better than mine.

For the sake of fairness, I should point you to The Non-Blonde who received an early press sample and who had a very positive experience with the perfume, though she shared my initial trepidation when reading the large list of synthetics in the notes:

Ramon Monegal chose to also list several of the synthetic molecules: helional (a green hay-like grassy odor), melonal (excatly [sic] what it says), calone (usually the worst marine-ozonic offender), ultrazur (another fresh-ozonic beast, sweeter and greener than calone). It sounds like a warning sign and it took all my trust in Ramon Monegal’s perfumery skill and style to make me take that first spritz on my wrist.

I shouldn’t have worried. While Pure Mariposa opens with a burst of sharp and fresh citrus oil, I don’t smell the sea or any rotten melons; just air from a window opened early in the morning, letting in cool air. It’s a mix of bright yellow and bright green: the freshly mowed grass, a glass of freshly squeezed grapefruit juice, meyer lemons arranged in a bowl on the table. Then things become more floral as the day (and Pure Mariposa) starts to unfold. New blossoms open every day, white, pink, and orange. The heart is rather abstract, I can’t say “here’s muguet! there’s rose!”, but it is very floral, slightly honeyed (those fresh water molecules are gone and forgotten), juicy and a bit pulpy. I do smell quite a bit of peach and it goes hand in hand with a strong tuberose note. There’s a point that Mariposa becomes a blend of powder and tuberose, very feminine on my skin (dry and woody on the husband) and if you over spray it really takes over the room.

On her skin, Ramon Monegal lasted 16 hours. In my opinion, that is further testament to the synthetic nature of the perfume since we all know that synthetics can make a perfume last forever — even when you wish the perfume would die, and die now.

Clearly, something about my skin chemistry seems to turn aromachemicals into something pretty extreme. I was with two people who aren’t perfumistas, but who absolutely loved the scent of Pure Mariposa that pulsated in the air like a sound wave. They found it “fresh and sweet.” (Apparently, they love melonal more than I do.) Nonetheless, when one of them smelled it on my arm, they grimaced.

My reviews are based solely my personal (and, therefore, obviously subjective) experience with a scent. And, on my skin, there is something incredibly artificial, chemical, and unpleasant about Pure Mariposa. If you love very fresh, melon-y, floral, green, woody fragrances and if you can’t smell any metallic undertone to calone’s aquatic notes or aren’t sensitive to aromachemicals in general, then this may be one for you to try. But make sure you don’t just smell it in the bottle or on a strip of paper. This is one you need to actually apply to your skin! Also, beware the amount that you apply and perhaps reconsider wearing it to the office. As the Non-Blonde noted, this is a “robust” scent, so “be careful if you’re around grumpy office people who don’t appreciate this colorful scented presence.”

Personally, I wouldn’t recommend this with a ten-foot pole unless you know ahead of time that you like synthetics, especially melonal and calone. Not for $200 a bottle. Oh, did I not mention the cost? It’s $200 for a 1.7 ounce bottle of eau de parfum. I won’t bring up Neiman Marcus’ pejorative nickname, but I think those of you outside America should count yourselves fortunate that this exclusive item is not available for shipping overseas.

All in all, a huge disappointment. 

Pure Mariposa is an Eau de Parfum that comes only in a 1.7 oz/50 ml bottle and costs $200. It is exclusive to Neiman Marcus. Unfortunately, the department store will not ship or export the perfume outside of the United States. I went to the page and tried numerous different countries in the “Shipping to” link at the top, and each time received a message in the lower right-hand corner stating, “We are sorry, but we are unable to ship this item to _______[insert country’s name].” As for samples, I don’t see the perfume listed yet on any of the US perfume decanting sites.

New Perfume Releases: Volume 3 – January 26th, 2013

I’ve decided to make “New Perfume Releases” a regular feature of the blog. As always, I will try to cover both men and women’s fragrances, niche and mass-market. So, yes, it will be long, but feel free to scroll through to whatever interests you. (Plus, there are some pretty pictures!) All posts are taken via Now Smell This (NST) or Fragrantica. Each site has some discussion of the fragrance in question so, if you’re interested in further details, be sure to check out the original listing.

Today’s entry will cover everything from the re-invention of a Laura Ashley classic to a new Guerlain lingerie spray, a new M. Micallef fragrance inspired by vintage cars, and the first entirely new perfume from Kerosene in seven years. There will be a return to the oldies with a special Youth Dew limited-edition issue, the clothing house of H&M‘s first “luxury” perfume (in conjunction with the Byredo perfumer), and even a brief foray into the Kardashian world with a fragrance from Khloe Kardashian Odom. (Mea Culpa. I couldn’t really resist.) With a few exceptions, it doesn’t seem as though there are a huge number of new niche scents that will be released in the next few weeks or month.


The much-loved Indie line, Sonoma Scent Studio (SSS), is releasing a new line of natural fragrances. Now Smell This provides the following information:

Indie line Sonoma Scent Studio has launched Cocoa Sandalwood, the first in a new range of all natural fragrances. Upcoming natural fragrances include Spiced Citrus Vetiver and Amber Incense. Also new from the brand is Rose Volupté, which replaces Vintage Rose.

Cocoa Sandalwood ~This all-natural perfume is a gourmand for lovers of natural sandalwood. A luscious cocoa absolute melds with New Caledonia sandalwood absolute, spices, and a lactonic natural peach note. Vanilla and a subtle hint of coffee make the chocolate richer, while woodsy cedar and musky ambrette seed reinforce and complement the sandalwood. For women and men. Additional notes include ginger, cinnamon, clove and rose.

Rose Volupté ~ Rose Volupté is a luxurious plumy rose with a rich base of woods, amber, spices, and labdanum. A warm and long lasting ambery rose. Additional notes include sandalwood, cedar, vetiver, heliotrope, clove, cinnamon, oakmoss and aldehydes.

Sonoma Scent Studio Cocoa Sandalwood and Rose Volupté are available in 5, 17  and 34 ml. (via sonomascentstudio)


According to Fragrantica, one of the most talked-about niche houses in 2012 was the Spanish perfume brand Ramon Monegal. The brand recently announced an exclusive fragrance for Neiman Marcus called Pure Mariposa. The perfume will be released in February 2013, and Fragrantica has the following information:

Pure Mariposa will offer a floral-nectar accord with a festive tone in a dew-covered green forest, surrounded by a breeze of ozonic air, on a rich bottom accord of amber and musk.


Top notes: Orange, Grapefruit Bergamot, Yuzu, Black currant, Plum.
Heart: Oakmoss, Grass accord, Fig, Osmanthus, Jasmine, Lily of the Valley, Rose wardia, Tuberose.
Base: Sandalwood, Cashmeran, Iris, Anchouli, Peach, Tonka, Amber

Pure Mariposa will be available exclusively at Neiman Marcus stores beginning in February 2013. The fragrance is an Eau De Parfum, available in a 50 ml/1.7 oz size and priced at $200.


The Scandanavian clothing brand, H&M, will present its new luxury line called & Other Stories in 2013. Fragrantica states: “The line offers high-quality clothing, fine lingerie, footwear, fashion accessories and a cosmetics line. The first collection of this brand comes out in Spring/Summer 2013. […] As part of this brand, H&M will launch a perfume called Rose Revival, whose creation is signed by Ben Gorham, the man behind niche house Byredo.” There is no information on the notes (besides the obvious rose one) thus far. However, there is a rather cool video if any of you are interested:


Guerlain Eau de LingerieNot a new perfume, but a fabric spray. You see, Guerlain is temporarily going to release a limited-edition lingerie line. (Yes, really. That wasn’t a typo.) And this is the scent that goes with it. NST has the details:

Guerlain will launch Eau de Lingerie, a new scented fabric spray, in February. The spray is being released in conjunction with a limited edition Guerlain lingerie line from Absolutely Pôm.

The powdery floral fragrance will include notes of iris, rose, vanilla, sandalwood, ambrette and white musk.

Guerlain Eau de Lingerie will be available in 125 ml, €65, at Guerlain boutiques.

If you’re interested, NST has a small discussion on what it’s supposed to smell like, as well as links to articles about it in French Marie-Claire and French Vogue. Just click on “details” up above.


Following on the heels of his successful 1 Million fragrance, Paco Rabanne is launching 1 Million Intense. Fragrantica has the following information:

Masculine fragrance 1 Million from the designer house Paco Rabanne has experienced tremendous popularity since it was launched in 2008. The only previous reissue of this perfume is 1 Million Gold Absolutely, a pure perfume version presented in 2012. In 2013, there is also a new version launched – 1 Million Intense. The new perfume is announced as the embodiment of extravagance. 

The spicy – woody – oriental compositions of this intensified and deeper version begins with fresh and spicy notes of blood mandarin, cardamom, black pepper and saffron. Rose absolute, neroli and cinnamon form the perfume’s heart, situated at the base of white leather, orris root, patchouli and sandalwood.

Top notes: blood mandarin, cardamom, pepper, saffron
Heart: rose absolute, neroli, cinnamon
Base: leather, patchouli, sandalwood, orris root

The fragrance is available as 50 and 100 ml Eau de Toilette Intense.


Laura Ashley has re-invented and re-launched their original 1981 fragrance, Laura Ashley No. 1. NST has the following information from the press release:

Exclusively designed for Laura Ashley in 1981, to complement the charming floral prints and delicate geometric designs of that era, the original No.1 fragrance has been reinvented for 2012. Laura Ashley No 1 perfume, 2012 version

Today’s modern interpretation, designed by renowned perfumer, Azzi Glasser, uses the finest ingredients to create an evocative fragrance with top notes of cassis, Victorian plum, violet leaves, marshmallow and green water stem. Heart notes of wild bluebell, purple rose, white gardenia and chamomile provide a beautiful floral scent, whilst base notes of sandalwood, patchouli oil and creamy musk, complement the blend perfectly.

Retaining all the charm of a very floral, fragrant and famous history, the perfume captures the heart of Laura Ashley’s style. The floral bottle replicates perfectly the brand’s identity of bold, beautiful stand-out print, which has defined their place in home decor and fashion as innovative experts, blending old and new to keep their charm.

Laura Ashley No. 1 is available in 30 ($52) and 60 ($68) ml Eau de Parfum, and can be found now at the Laura Ashley US website.

There is a lively discussion on the NST site about the “modern interpretation,” so if you’re interested, have fond memories of the ’80s, or liked Laura Ashley, don’t hesitate to check it out.

In The “I Don’t Have Any Words” Category:

I truly don’t know what to say about this next one and its supposed “vortex,” so I’ll just quote verbatim from Fragrantica:

Married couple Khloe Kardashian Odom and Lamar Odom launched their first joint fragrance Unbreakable (now renamed Unbreakable Bond) in 2011. The fragrance has experienced rapid success, and so did its festive limited edition Unbreakable Joy from 2012.  In February the 2013, the couple will delight their fans with a new fragrance called Unbreakable Love.The new creation is described as a lively and sensual fragrance vortex for women and men. Its top notes include delicate exotic neroli and the citrus freshness of bergamot, associated with a floral heart and deep notes of cedar and musk.

Unbreakable Love is available as 100 ml Eau de Toilette.

This may be the time to bring up, once again, how celebrity perfumes are made, and how marketing, branding, use of the cheapest or most synthetic ingredients, and the financial bottom line are the driving forces — not the desire to make great, original perfume. A fellow blogger, Scent Bound, has a really great discussion of those things in an article entitled: “The Making of a Celebrity Fragrance.”


Yet another flanker. This time for the Dahlia Noir line. It will be called Dahlia Noir L’Eau and will be released sometime in Spring 2013. Fragrantica has the details:

Dahlia Noir L’Eau is more vivid, livelier and a fresher scent than the original, but it is still elegant and sensual. With this composition Francois Demachy wants to show the delicate side of the dangerous black dahlia flower. The top sparkles with cool crystal citruses and neroli, which lead to the floral heart of rose petals. The base is made of patchouli, cedar and musk, giving a chypre character to the perfume.

Top notes: citrus, neroli
Heart: rose Base: patchouli, cedar, musk

The fragrance will be available as 50, 95 and 125 ml Eau de Toilette.


Kerosene Fragrances has a new perfume called Unknown Pleasures. Fragrantica provides the following information:

Kerosene Fragrances Unknown Pleasures is a new fragrance presented in 2013, after seven years. The first fragrance presented by Kerosene Fragrances to the market was R’Oud Elements, and it was followed by seven more editions during 2012.

About the fragrance: “You’re walking down a cold street in Manchester, listening to Joy Division, sipping on a warm cup of London Fog. This fragrance opens up with the smooth sweetness of honey with Earl Grey tea, with a zing of lemon. It dries down to a cozy vanilla, soft tonka bean and waffle cone base, sure to make any gourmand lover smile.” The perfumer of the edition is John Pegg.

Official notes: Earl Grey tea, lemon, honey, bergamot, tonka, caramel, vanilla and waffle cone.

Fragrance Unknown Pleaures has been available in a gold colored flacon 100 ml EDP since 2013.


Estée Lauder’s Youth Dew turns 60! In celebration, the company is releasing a limited-edition anniversary edition in March 2013. You can read all about the history of the famous original in a detailed article on Fragrantica. The site also provides the following information on the special, limited-edition release:

Youth-Dew Limited Edition Estée Lauder for womenThis year, in honor of the jubilee 60th birthday of Youth Dew by Estee Lauder, a limited edition with an unchanged composition has been introduced, in a glass bottle with a ribbon embellished with tiny crystals. The body of the bottle in this case is “tightened with a lovely gold-colored bow that highlights the’waist’ and emphasizes the silhouette.” Small crystals accentuate the festive mood. Youth-Dew Limited Edition 2013 arrives as 67 ml EDP and will be available from March 2013.

Youth-Dew is one of those fragrances that you must try if you really like perfumery. It is one of those that you either love with all your heart or you can never grow fond of it. A fragrance that belongs to history and ancient times, but is also so close and dear to us because it was worn by our grandmothers and mothers. Unique and characteristic. The fragrance that I remember from my early childhood. The fragrance that is respected because of its history and involvement in the development of modern perfumery.

Official notes of the fragrance

(60th birthday of original edition)
top notes: rose, daffodil, lavender
heart: jasmin, ginger, spices
base: moss, vetiver, patchouli

Estée Lauder is also releasing a limited-edition flanker to its Bronze Goddess series called Bronze Goddess Eau Fraiche SkinScentFragrantica provides the following information:

Bronze Goddess Eau Fraiche SkinScent is a new, limited edition of the Bronze Goddess collection which will be launched in March 2013. According to Moodiereport, the new fragrance will be available in duty-free stores in Europe, Middle East, Asia and America.

After golden-turquoise and sunny orange bottles sprinkled with golden glitter, here comes the golden edition—a bottle colored in gold evoking warm summer, hot and soft sand, a luxurious vacation full of excitement spiced with exotic and glamour. The fragrance contains notes of amber warming citrusy zests of mandarin and lemon, with a heart blooming with milky white petals.

Bronze Goddess Eau Fraiche SkinScent 2013
mandarin, lemon, milky floral notes, amber

Bronze Goddess Eau Fraiche SkinScent arrives as limited edition, 100 ml eau fraiche.


The niche house, L’Artisan Parfumeur, will release a new woody-aromatic fragrance called Caligna.  Now Smell This has more details via the company’s press release: “French niche line L’Artisan Parfumeur will launch Caligna, a new woody aromatic fragrance. Caligna will be fronted by dancer Gudrun Ghesquière.” L'Artisan Parfumeur Caligna

Addictive and aromatic. Take a stroll through the Grasse countryside, where mountains and the Mediterranean meet…

L’Artisan Parfumeur, together with perfumer Dora Baghriche-Arnaud, honours an emblematic but less well-known ingredient of the Grasse region: the clary sage. Fresh and sensual, green and woody, fruity and ambery, the highly-facetted clary sage was the starting point for this perfume, and is married to, and enhanced with notes of fig and a jasmine marmalade accord, with all the natural richness of this iconic flower, resulting in an incomparable freshness and luminosity. The warm woody effect of the perfume’s base comes from the resinous depth of lentisk, a native plant of the maquis, and from pine needles, redolent of Mediterranean hillsides.

L’Artisan Parfumeur Caligna will be available in 100 ml Eau de Parfum, £95.


The French luxury niche house of M. Micallef is launching a new fragrance called Royal Vintage in February 2013 that is inspired by beautiful vintage cars. Fragrantica provides information from the company’s press release:

M.Micallef is launching a new fragrance for men named ROYAL VINTAGE at the beginning of February 2013. The new fragrance is dedicated to men with timeless sophisticated elegance, and it gives intensive leather nuances harmoniously blended with strong woody notes and juicy fruits.

In the top notes Royal Vintage offers fruity notes of pink berries and bergamot, followed by leather and cypress in the heart of the composition. Strong masculine notes are warmed with a patchouli accord in the base surrounded with a sensual musky aura.

pink berries, bergamot
cypress, leather
musk, patchouli

“… For this atypical fragrance in our collection, I wanted to reinterpret the EXCLUSIVE bottle using the design codes of these beautiful vintage cars… ” says Martine Micallef. The new bottle of the Royal VIntage fragrance is colored with gray nuances and it comes in very elegant black packaging.


NST has details on a new Stella McCartney fragrance that was just released in the UK. No word on when it will hit the US, though Sephora carries most of the line due to its great popularity, so it’s bound to hit these shores soon. The new fragrance is a flanker to her original L.I.L.Y fragrance but is a stronger version called L.I.L.Y Absolute:

Stella McCartney L.I.L.Y Absolute

Stella McCartney introduces L.I.L.Y ABSOLUTE, her latest, very personal fragrance. Intensely sensual, the affirmation of a fulfilled and confident, modern woman. Mysterious and refined, it fully expresses the woods and lightens the floral notes to create a new, deeper fragrance. It begins with black truffle, spiced with black pepper. The heart is luminous, more illusive, layering lily of the valley, pink pepper and ambrette seeds over a signature of cool oak moss, dry white woods, patchouli and carnal notes of amber. Framed in gold, L.I.L.Y ABSOLUTE evokes a balanced sophistication.

Stella McCartney L.I.L.Y Absolute is available in 50 ml Eau de Parfum, and can be found now at Selfridges in the UK, £65.


Thierry Mugler seems to have developed some sort of refill fountain for his most popular fragrances. It’s called Source, and Fragrantica has more details:

Besides the 20th anniversary of the iconic Angel fragrance (Article: Thierry Mugler Angel Precious Star 20th Birthday Edition, A*Men Gold Edition), Mugler celebrates 20 years of the refill bottles he offers to fans of his fragrances. In that honor he presents Source, a fragrant cell (fragrant fountain) for refills which will “pour” the four most popular editions at the same time: AngelAlienWomanity and Angel Eau de Toilette.

The idea to refill a Mugler flacon will decrease the need for new ones and owners of empty packaging will be delighted with the refills and the somewhat lower price for their favorite perfumes. It is stated that it could save $30 or more on each fragrance if the service is utilized. The latest project of Thierry Mugler Source can be seen in over 2000 stores in France so far, where Thierry Mugler perfumes can be purchased.